Discusses key economic indicators and trade statistics, which countries are dominant in the market, the U.S. market share, the political situation if relevant, the top reasons why U.S. companies should consider exporting to this country, and other issues that affect trade, e.g., terrorism, currency devaluations, trade agreements.
Last Published: 2/9/2019

Since regaining independence in 2006, Montenegro has adopted an investment framework to encourage growth, employment, and exports.  Although the continuing transition has not eliminated all structural barriers, the government recognizes the need to remove impediments, ensure business-friendly policies and improve transparency and open the economy to foreign investors.

Montenegro makes no distinction between domestic and foreign companies.  Foreign companies can own 100 percent of a domestic company, profits and dividends can be repatriated without limitations or restrictions.  Exceptions to this policy are the small number of cases dealing with defense-related industries.
Montenegro joined NATO in June 2017.  As a candidate country on its path to joining the European Union (EU), Montenegro is making steady progress in opening negotiating chapters with the EU.  Out of 35 chapters, three are provisionally closed, 31 are opened, and it is expected that the remaining four will be opened in 2018.

Montenegro offers foreign investors low, fixed tax rates, a business-oriented economy, significant economic freedom, a stable currency (Euro), and openness to incentivize investors.   Montenegro is a beneficiary of the Generalized System of Preferences program, which provides duty-free access to the U.S. market in various eligible categories.    The Euro is the official currency in Montenegro, which stabilizes financial flows and results in lower transaction costs.  This is an informal arrangement with the European Central Bank, and Montenegro is not part of the Euro Zone.  Private ownership is protected by the Constitution and includes equal treatment of foreigners.  The IMF has cautioned Montenegro that its economic system is vulnerable to external shocks due to its high public debt-to-GDP ratio.  Montenegro’s public financial situation is relatively weak, with a debt-to-GDP ratio of 65.9 percent, with forecasts of growing indebtedness based on projected infrastructure development needs.

Montenegro has favorable tax regime with the lowest corporate tax rate in the region at nine percent; in April 2018, Moody’s affirmed Montenegro’s B1 credit rating and stable outlook, supporting the implementation of economic reforms.   Approximately 90 percent of government-owned enterprises have been privatized, though many larger assets remain in government hands.  For 2017, Montenegro’s economy grew by 4.2 percent while the unemployment rate was 15.1percent. 
Montenegro attracts considerable interest from foreign investors.   According to data released by the Montenegrin Investment Promotion Agency (MIPA), EUR 7.8 billion have been invested in Montenegro since 2006 with a total inflow of FDI in 2017 of EUR 649.1 million.  Montenegro is a leading country in FDI, as measured by investment per capita in the region and since 2006 has averaged around 17 percent of GDP.

More than 100 countries have invested in Montenegro, with no single country dominating the market. The most significant investments have come from Italy, Russia, Serbia, and Cyprus, with new interest coming from the United Arab Emirates, Azerbaijan, China, Turkey, and the United States.

Prepared by our U.S. Embassies abroad. With its network of 108 offices across the United States and in more than 75 countries, the U.S. Commercial Service of the U.S. Department of Commerce utilizes its global presence and international marketing expertise to help U.S. companies sell their products and services worldwide. Locate the U.S. Commercial Service trade specialist in the U.S. nearest you by visiting http://export.gov/usoffices.

Montenegro Trade Development and Promotion