Philippines - 9-CorruptionPhilippines - Corruption
Corruption is a pervasive and long-standing problem in both the public and private sectors. The country’s ranking in Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index declined from 95 in 2015 to 101 in 2016 of 176 countries worldwide. The World Economic Forum’s 2016-2017 Global Competitiveness Report ranked corruption as among the top problematic factors for doing business in the Philippines. The Bureau of Customs is widely seen to be of particular concern with regard to corruption.
The Philippine Development Plan 2017-2022 outlines strategies to reduce corruption by streamlining government transactions, modernizing regulatory processes, and establishing mechanisms for citizens to report complaints. In October 2016, President Rodrigo Duterte signed an executive order establishing a “citizens’ complaint hotline” and “complaint center” for the public to directly report corruption in government agencies. The Office of the President oversees the center, which can be reached by the hotline, text services (SMS) and social media.
The Philippine Revised Penal Code, the Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act, and the Code of Ethical Conduct for Public Officials all aim to combat corruption and related anti-competitive business practices. The Office of the Ombudsman investigates and prosecutes cases of alleged graft and corruption involving public officials, with more information available on their website. Cases against high-ranking officials are brought before the special anti-corruption court, the “Sandiganbayan,” while cases against low-ranking officials are filed before regional trial courts.
The Office of the President can directly investigate and hear administrative cases involving presidential appointees in the executive branch and government-owned and controlled corporations. Soliciting, accepting, and/or offering/giving a bribe are criminal offenses punishable by imprisonment, a fine, and/or disqualification from public office or business dealings with the government. Government anti-corruption agencies routinely investigate public officials, but convictions by courts are limited, often appealed, and convictions can be overturned.
UN Anticorruption Convention, OECD Convention on Combatting Bribery
The Philippines ratified the United Nations Convention against Corruption in 2003. It is not a signatory to the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery.
Resources to Report Corruption:
Contact at government agency:
Office of the Ombudsman
Ombudsman Building, Agham Road, North Triangle, Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines 1101
Hotline: (+632) 9262.662
Telephone: (+632) 479.7300
Contact Center ng Bayan
Text: (+639) 08881.6565
Philippines Economic Development and Investment Market Access