Mexico - Trade BarriersMexico - Trade Barriers
Under NAFTA, there are virtually no tariff barriers for U.S. exports to Mexico, with some exceptions as noted elsewhere. However, on June 5, 2018, the Mexican government responded to the imposition of tariffs on the import of certain Mexican steel and aluminum products into the United States by suspending preferential tariff treatment and raising the general import tax rate of various goods originating from the United States. The Mexican government indicated these increased tariffs will be valid until it determines that the United States has stopped applying the tariffs on steel and aluminum products originating from Mexico.
Specifically, Mexico is applying tariffs to products of U.S. origin in HS codes 71 and 72 (regardless of where they are imported from). The exact list is included in Mexico’s national Official Gazette (Diario Oficial de la Federacion, or DOF) in the edition of June 5, 2018. Duties range from 5 percent to 25 percent.
Further, for future developments and information on eventual agreements related to the NAFTA renegotiation, check the Fact Sheets and NAFTA pages at the Office of United States Trade Representative at www.ustr.gov.
Certain sensitive products entering Mexico must obtain an import license, for which the difficulty varies according to the nature of the product. Periodically, the Mexican Government publishes lists that identify the different items that have a specific import control. Items are identified according to their Harmonized System (HS) code number; therefore, it is important that U.S. exporters have their products correctly classified. U.S. exporters are encouraged to check with customs brokers as to the accurate classification of their products.
- The Secretariat of National Defense (SEDENA) requires an authorization to import guns, arms, munitions, explosives, and defense equipment, as well as special military vehicles (new or used). This would be in addition to the export license required by U.S. export controls.
- The Secretariat of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural Development, Fisheries and Food (SAGARPA) requires the Hoja de Requisitos Zoo-Sanitarios, which acts as an import permit prior to import authorization for some leather and fur products, and fresh/chilled and frozen meat. Agricultural machinery does not require approval from SAGARPA.
- The Secretariat of Health (SSA), through its Federal Commission for the Protection Against Sanitary Risks (COFEPRIS), requires either an “advance sanitary import authorization” or “notification of sanitary import" for medical products and equipment, pharmaceuticals, diagnostic products, toiletries, processed food, and certain chemicals. Food supplements and herbal products are highly regulated in Mexico, unlike in the United States.
- The Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources (SEMARNAT) requires import authorizations for products made from endangered species, such as certain eggs, ivory, certain types of wood, and furs.
- Toxic and hazardous products require an import authorization from an interagency commission called CICOPLAFEST which has representation from the four agencies mentioned above (SEDENA, SAGARPA, SSA, and SEMARNAT). This list includes many organic and inorganic chemicals.
A resolution published in the DOF on January 26, 2009, abolished minimum estimated prices, also referred to as “reference prices” in all industries except for used cars and textiles.
Several measures regulating Mexican textile importers also collaterally affect other U.S. exporters. These measures include an importer registry, the establishment of reference prices (though they should not be applied to products coming in under a NAFTA Certificate of Origin), and a five-day waiting period for all imports.
Importers of textiles and apparel products must be registered in the Official Registry No.11 for textile/apparel sector. The instructions to register can be found in the Guide to Textile Sector Production.
- A Vehicle Identification Number (VIN, or NIV) along with a visible digital picture
- Confirmation that the vehicle was manufactured in the United States, Mexico or Canada
- The use of a customs agent affiliated with the customs house of entry of the vehicle
- The bill of lading for permanent importation for each vehicle
- An invoice stamped “shipper export” by U.S. Customs
- The RFC (the Mexican federal tax identification number), CURP (the identity number), and INE (the voter registration number) of the importer
- Proof of address of the Mexican importer including postal code
- Proof of payment of the IGI (Impuesto General de Importación or General Import Tax)
- Compliance with Mexican standard vehicle categories
- Payment of the 10 percent ad-valorem tax (one percent for the border zone) based on a minimum estimated price or “reference price”
Please refer to our U.S. Commercial Service Mexico City Market Report on Regulations for the Importation of Used Vehicles and Trucks for further details.
Since 2014, Mexican Customs has been requiring more information on steel products in their effort to process legitimate shipments of steel from the United States. Mexican importers are now required to present detailed material information prior to the shipment’s arrival in customs.
U.S. exporters should provide their Mexican client with either a mill test report or a material quality certificate from the steel mill from which the raw material was sourced. This is independent of whether the products are secondary or tertiary (i.e., screws made of steel bar are tertiary since the bar itself is a secondary product from the mill). Tertiary producers must request the test report from their secondary producers who in turn get the report from the mill.
It is the Mexican importer’s responsibility to issue their automatic notification (aviso automatico) through the one-stop online import/export system single window (ventanilla unica, or VUCEM) at least five days before the goods arrive in Mexican customs, or shipments will face delays. Thus, to avoid delays we advise U.S. exporters to send to the Mexican importer in advance all necessary paperwork related to the steel export, the mill test report, or the mill quality certificate, as well as the commercial invoice.
On January 2017, due to changes in Mexican customs law, Mexican importers—in addition to being an authorized entity to import—must be registered in the Sectoral Promotion Programs (PROSEC) for the steel industry.
In June 2018, as a countermeasure to the tariffs applied by the U.S. Government on steel and aluminum imported from Mexico, the Mexican government increased the general importation tax to definite imports for 186 tariff lines of steel products, including slab, sheet plate, roll plate, cold rolled plate, hot rolled plate, wire rod, seamless tubes, welded tubes, coated sheet, and rod categories. The new duties range from 5 percent to 25 percent. Information on these tariffs may be found in Mexico’s Official Gazette, DOF 05/06/2018.
For more information and help with trade barriers please contact:
U.S. Commercial Service, Mexico City
Tel.: +52 55 5080 2182
Tel.: +52 55 5080 2000 ext. 5219
International Trade Administration
Enforcement and Compliance
Mexico Trade Barriers