Includes typical use of agents and distributors and how to find a good partner, e.g., whether use of an agent or distributor is legally required.
Last Published: 6/1/2016

Companies wishing to use distribution, franchising and agency arrangements need to ensure that the agreements they put into place are in accordance with EU and member state national laws. Council Directive 86/653/EEC establishes certain minimum standards of protection for self-employed commercial agents who sell or purchase goods on behalf of their principals.  The Directive establishes the rights and obligations of the principal and its agents, the agent’s remuneration and the conclusion and termination of an agency contract.  It also establishes the notice to be given and indemnity or compensation to be paid to the agent. U.S. companies should be particularly aware that according to the Directive, parties may not derogate from certain requirements.  Accordingly, the inclusion of a clause specifying an alternate body of law to be applied in the event of a dispute will likely be ruled invalid by European courts.
 
Key Link:
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31986L0653:EN:HTML
 
The European Commission’s Directorate General for Competition enforces legislation concerned with the effects on competition in the internal market of "vertical agreements." U.S. small- and medium-sized companies (SMEs) are often exempt from these regulations because their agreements likely would qualify as "agreements of minor importance," meaning they are considered incapable of impacting competition at the EU level but useful for cooperation between SMEs.  Generally speaking, companies with fewer than 250 employees and an annual turnover of less than €50 million are considered small- and medium-sized. The EU has additionally indicated that agreements that affect less than 10 percent of a particular market are generally exempted (Commission Notice 2014/C 291/01).
 
Key Link:
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.C_.2014.291.01.0001.01.ENG
 
The EU also looks to combat payment delays.  Directive 2011/7/EU covers all commercial transactions within the EU, whether in the public or private sector, primarily dealing with the consequences of late payment. Transactions with consumers, however, do not fall within the scope of this Directive.  Directive 2011/7/EU entitles a seller who does not receive payment for goods and/or services within 30 days of the payment deadline to collect interest (at a rate of eight percent above the European Central Bank rate) as well as 40 Euro as compensation for recovery of costs.  For business-to-business transactions a 60-day period may be negotiated subject to conditions. The seller may also retain the title to goods until payment is completed and may claim full compensation for all recovery costs.
 
Key Link:
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:048:0001:0010:EN:PDF
 
Companies’ agents and distributors can take advantage of the European Ombudsman when victim of inefficient management by an EU institution or body.  Complaints can be made to the European Ombudsman only by businesses and other bodies with registered offices in the EU.  The Ombudsman can act upon these complaints by investigating cases in which EU institutions fail to act in accordance with the law, fail to respect the principles of good administration, or violate fundamental rights.  In addition, SOLVIT, a network of national centers, offers online assistance to citizens and businesses who encounter problems with transactions within the borders of the single market.
 
Key Links:
http://www.ombudsman.europa.eu/home/en/default.htm
http://ec.europa.eu/solvit/site/about/index_en.htm




European Union 28 Trade Development and Promotion