123 Agreements

For significant nuclear exports, the country must have a 123 Agreement for peaceful nuclear cooperation pursuant to Section 123 of the U.S. Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended. In order for a country to enter into such an Agreement with the United States, that country must commit itself to adhering to U.S.- mandated nuclear nonproliferation norms.

Significant nuclear exports include power reactors, research reactors, source and special nuclear materials (for use as reactor fuel), and four major components of reactors (pressure vessels, fuel charging and discharging machines, complete control rod drive units, and primary coolant pumps).

A 123 Agreement typically does not commit the United States to any specific exports or other cooperative activities, but rather establishes a framework of conditions and controls to govern subsequent commercial transactions, if any.

List of 123 Agreements

The Department of State is the lead Federal agency that negotiates 123 Agreements. For more information please visit the Department of State’s Directorate of Defense Controls website.

The Civil Nuclear Exporter’s Guide can be viewed as a Flow Chart (PDF) or in Step-By-Step format.


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