The EAR groups items (commodities, software, and technology) into 10 categories, each containing numerous entries that bear Export Control Classification Numbers (ECCNs). These entries are found in Supplement No. 1 to Part 774 of the EAR, or the Commerce Control List (CCL). The CCL and the Country Chart (Supplement No. 1 to Part 738) together define items subject to export controls solely on the basis of the technical parameters of the item and the country of ultimate destination. Items that are on the CCL but that do not require a license by reason of the Country Chart and items classified as EAR99 (see section 734.3(c) of the EAR, titled “Scope of the EAR”) are designated as “NLR,” or “no license required.”

BOX 10.2 Strategy Targeting Organized Piracy

Developed in 2004, the Strategy Targeting Organized Piracy (STOP!) is the most comprehensive initiative yet advanced to help small businesses secure and enforce their rights in overseas markets.

The initiative established a hotline at (866) 999-HALT (866-999-4258) that provides a “one-stop” shop for businesses wanting to protect their intellectual property at home and abroad.

STOP! Also educates small businesses on best practices and the risks of global piracy and counterfeiting to help them protect their rights.

For more information about STOP! visit